Yamanokuchi Baku – A Conversation

Yamaokuchi Baku with his namesake, a baku (tapir)

Yamanokuchi Baku – “A Conversation” (1935)

“Where are you from?” the woman said.

Hmm. My homeland?? I lit a cigarette and thought, that place colored by the associations of tattooed hands and jabisens, that are like a pattern of customs – is that my homeland?!

A ways away…

“What does ‘a ways away’ mean?” the woman said.

It means a ways away, right before the Southern tip of the Japanese archipelago, the kind of place where women carry pigs on their heads and walk barefoot, and customs are in a gloomy way – is that my homeland?!

Down south.

What is ‘down south’? the woman said.

Down south is down south. A region of endless summer situated by the indigo sea, with plants like tunbyan and deigo and adan and papaya huddled under the white season, that place where the stereotyped questions like ‘Are they even Japanese’ or ‘Do they speak Japanese’ have taken hold in the world – is that my homeland!?

The subtropics.

“The subtropics!” the woman said.

Yea, the subtropics, my lady, can’t you see the subtropics right here in front of you? Someone like me, a Japanese who can speak Japanese but was born in the subtropics – this is us – though we are looked at as synonymous with chieftains, with natives, with karate, with awamori, this place where the world looks at us with this type of prejudice – is that my homeland!?

Near the equator.

Yamanokuchi Baku (1903 – 1963) is a real one, and in fact this is his second reference already in this small collection of posts, but this time I wanted to share my translation of perhaps his most famous poem “A Conversation” (会話), which was first published in 1935. The poem is something I have spent a lot of time thinking about, having presented on it at conferences and even winning an award for an essay I wrote on it a couple years ago.

I won’t go into a reading of the poem here, at least not at this moment. I just want to make a couple notes on why I went ahead and translated the poem again. There is already a translation available from Steve Rabson in the incredibly valuable anthology Southern Exposure: Modern Japanese Literature from Okinawa and in general I think Rabson’s is really quite good. Except for one bit that I have always struggled with being left out of his translation — the refrain “is that my homeland!?” that comes at the end of the longer stanzas which seem to reflect the narrator’s internal dilemma about his relationship with Okinawa. The original Japanese is even more direct (あの僕の国か!) and really drives home the ambivalence that speaker of the poem feels about Ryukyu/Okinawa. That, along with some minor things like leaving tunbyan (agave), deigo (tiger’s claw ) and adan (screw pine) untranslated and in the Ryukyuan language (the words are presented as kanji with Ryukyuan glosses in the original) are the only major changes I have made. But I really think it is an important inclusion. I teach this poem often and it sparks quite a…conversation among the students.

Also — Baku’s work is now in the public domain, so head over to Aozora Bunko if you want to read some more of his writing.

山之口獏 ー 会話 (1935年)

お国は? と女が言つた

さて、僕の国はどこなんだか、とにかく僕は煙草(たばこ)に火をつけるんだが、刺青(いれずみ)蛇皮線(じゃびせん)などの聯想(れんそう)を染めて、図案のやうな風俗(ふうぞく)をしているあの僕の国か!

ずつとむかふ

ずつとむかふとは? と女が言つた
  それはずつとむかふ、日本列島(にっぽんれっとう)南端(なんたん)一寸(ちょっと)手前なんだが、頭上(ずじょう)に豚をのせる女がゐるとか素足(すあし)で歩くとかいふやうな、憂鬱(ゆううつ)方角(ほうがく)を習慣してゐる あの僕の国か!

南方

南方とは? と女が言つた
 南方は南方、濃藍(こいあい)の海に住んでゐるあの常夏の地帯(ちたい)龍舌蘭(トゥンビャン)梯梧(デイゴ)阿旦(あだん)とパパイヤなどの植物達が、白い季節を被って寄り添ふ(よりそう)てゐるんだが、あれは日本人ではないとか日本語は通じるかなどと話し合ひながら、世間の既成概念(きせいがいねん)達が寄留(きりゅう)するあの僕の国か!
  亜熱帯(あねったい)

アネッタイ! と女は言つた
   亜熱帯なんだが、僕の女よ、眼の前に見える亜熱帯が見えないのか!この僕のやうに、日本語の通じる日本人が、即ち(すなわち)亜熱帯に生まれた僕らなんだと僕はおもふんだが、酋長(しゅうちょう)だの土人だの唐手(からて)だの(あわ)(もり)だの、同義語でも眺めるかのやうに、世間の偏見達(へんけんたち)が眺めるあの僕の国か!
   赤道直下のあの近所

Fishmans – Unreliable Angel

Fishmans – 頼りない天使

Live performance of Unreliable Angel at Hibiya Open Air Concert Hall (1996)

Fishmans – Unreliable Angel

Take me beyond the distant night sky, she said.
Take me to the angel’s place, she said.

Goodbye – things are fading.
And now that she has called me
it’s the end, oh yes it’s already over.
From today, it’s just the two of us alone.

When the gentle angel comes down
surely she’s going to be delighted.

Isn’t this a strange story?
In the middle of a world like this,
for me to be the one to rely on.

And that girl says to me,
“The angel is coming now”
Honestly. It’s not a lie.
The future, you know,
it’s bright.

And with her confident mood, 
I myself surely changed.

Isn’t this a wonderful story.
That something so sure
is still now by my side.

Isn’t this a wonderful story.
that in the middle of this world
it’s just the two of us alone.

日本語

Fishmans is the band. When I am asked what kind of Japanese music I like they are almost always the first band to pop into my head. Rarely does the other party know who I am talking about (Japanese, American or otherwise). A cult favorite with a large following while they were active, Fishmans was never a chart topper. The music can be hard to describe. At times it is quite playful such as seen in Walkin’, a catchy pop song about the joys of wandering about town without a plan:

Meeting up at the shop in front of the station
laughing in way we haven’t in for what feels like 10 years.
The two of us, our heads held high, our feet turning over and over,
where should we go now?
Walkin’ Walkin’ Walkin’ Walkin’

However, as seen in the song featured here, many of the bands songs were deeper in theme. The music, consisting mainly of a subtle dub bass line running steady behind a whirling organ that builds up to a high pitch creates a dreamlike ambience that works perfectly with lead singer Sato Shinji’s haunting lyrics about…death? love? Love found in death, perhaps? I’ve returned to this song countless times since I first heard while on study abroad in Tokyo over a decade ago but still haven’t nailed exactly what I think the song is about. At that time, 20 years young, I was spending late nights in Shibuya and catching the 5 am train home, sitting next to salarymen on their way to work. I could barely be concerned with thoughts of mortality, love or loneliness.

Moreover, to be honest, at that point my Japanese was so poor I could barely order a coffee from Dotour, so I wasn’t even really listening to the lyrics. Still though, there was something about the ambience – the mood – that this and other Fishmans songs created that drew me in. Without understanding the words, I could still feel the tension in Sato’s singing. Lyrics caught between pain and joy being sung by a man unafraid to lay forth for the audience these emotions.

Now that I can, sort of, speak and understand Japanese the song’s impact is even stronger. I’ll leave it you to interpret what it is talking about, but there is one moment in the song I want to highlight:

In the live performance linked above, right around the 2min. 40sec. mark, is the point in the song where Sato sings:

“The angel is coming now” ( 天使は 今来ますって)

Honestly. [snare hit/music stops] It’s not a lie. ( 本当さ ウソじゃないんだよ)

It is a simple measure, the band stops the music for only a pause, but the impact is strong. Coming right in the middle of song, it highlights the importance of believing what is happening within the world Sato has created. And within that brief hush of instruments, Sato sounds at his most earnest, singing loudly, imploring you to keep listening, for nothing is fake about the song. Honestly.


I have linked to a live version of this song, but the studio version can be found on the 1992 album King Master George. I should mention that the band stopped releasing new music in 1999, after Sato passed away. They have since reunited a number of times for various memorial concerts. Also, the ability to listen to Fishmans has really grown in recent years, with a number of albums, concerts and music videos having been uploaded to YouTube. If you are interested in listening to more I would recommend searching for “Fishmans” as well as “フィッシュマンズ “, which is the band’s name in Japanese.

Takada Wataru – Life Pattern

高田渡 ー 生活の柄 (英訳)

Takada Wataru performs “Life Pattern” live

Takada Wataru – Life Pattern
(adapted from poem by Yamanokuchi Baku)

Tired from walking
I crawled into in a crack between the night sky and the earth
buried myself in grass and slept
anywhere, everywhere I slept.
Tired from walking
buried beneath grass I slept.
Walking, tired,
I slept but
I could not sleep

These days I can’t sleep
spread out on the earth I can’t sleep
beneath the night sky I can’t sleep
shaken awake I can’t sleep

Tired from walking
buried beneath grass I slept
Walking, tired,
I slept but
I could not sleep

Such is my life pattern but
it’s suited for summer, right?
I sleep a bit and
I sleep a bit and
once more I’m mocked by the cold breeze

the autumn
from the autumn 
I’ll stay a vagrant that can’t sleep

Tired from walking
I crawled into in a crack between the night sky and the earth
buried myself in grass and slept
anywhere, everywhere i slept.

This seems as good a song as any to open up this site. I have to admit that my familiarity with Takada is quite limited, so I cannot offer much biographical information. In fact, the reason I know this is because a friend introduced it to me knowing I would be interested in the original writer of the lyrics, Yamanokuchi Baku (山之口獏). Baku is a poet who I have admired for quite a while and I have a lot of thoughts on, but I will save them for another day, perhaps.

However, wikipedia tells me that Takada was born in Hyogo prefecture in 1949 and had a pretty difficult childhood. To begin, his mother passed away when he was eight. Then, his father, who had been a lumber supplier ran into severe financial difficulties and moved the family to Tokyo where they lived in state-supported apartment for the low-income families. His father passed away while Takada was still a student and after graduating from junior high school he began working at a printer. However, his dream of becoming a folk singer never left him and he continued to read poetry (people like Baku and Kaneko Mitsuharu) while also becoming increasingly interested in both the Soviet Union (he studied Russian) as well as American folk music. He eventually became a very successful folk singer in Japan, releasing dozens of records and writing books before he passed away in 2005.

Knowing this little bit about his life, I think it no surprise that Takada would have an affinity for Baku’s poem. I find his performance to be incredibly moving, I think in good part because it is such a close adaptation of the original poem. To be sure, Takada has rearranged some of the words and included some refrains (Tired from walking, I slept, etc.) that are not in the original poem to help make it a well-flowing piece of music. Baku’s poem (it is the same title – Seikatsu no gara) subtly captures the emotions and anxieties of homelessness with just a few words. Though it may not be obvious, it is near the end of the summer, so while this life is difficult now, it is doable (夏向きなのでしょうか). However, one can only imagine how things will continue in the autumn, when life will continue as a vagrant.

The poem is a great representative of much of Baku’s other work and I think Takada’s understated chord progression and style of singing seem to speak to each listener individually. I suppose that is the wonder of Dylan or Guthrie, as well, so if you are a fan of them, then you may want to look for more of his work, there is a good bit on YouTube.

I also want to stress this is a working translation. I will include the Japanese lyrics here as well, and I encourage anyone who comments or problems with my translation to please let me know. I would especially be curious to hear of other potential translations for the song/poem’s title. 柄 is a difficult word, and its usage here is tricky. I considered “Life’s Style” as well, but that didn’t sit quite right either. Translation is never a perfect product, especially in poetry and lyrics, where each word holds so much weight. Please let me know if you think there is a better way to translate something – only can get better through critique and comments.

高田渡ー生活高田柄 (作詞:山之口獏)

歩き疲れては夜空と陸との 
隙間にもぐりこんで草に埋れては 
寝たのです処かまわず寝たのです
歩き疲れては
草に埋れて寝たのです
歩き疲れ寝たのですが
眠れないのです

近ごろは眠れない
陸をひいては眠れない
夜空の下では眠れない
揺り起されては眠れない

歩き疲れては
草に埋れて寝たのです
歩き疲れ寝たのですが
眠れないのです

そんな僕の生活の柄が
夏向きなのでしょうか
寝たかと思うと 寝たかと思うと
またも冷気にからかわれて

秋は
秋からは
浮浪者のままでは眠れない
秋は
秋からは
浮浪者のままでは眠れない